Geri Anasayfa

Detay


The Middle East and Syria Policy of Turkey From Past to Present

Abstract
With the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, many states were established. Turkey, the continuation of Ottoman, and Syria, the heirs of the Ottoman Empire had long been the neighborhood in the same geographical area. However, the relations between Turkey and Syria had never been built on a healthy foundation and had not reached the level of long-term friendship. The constant tension in the relations had been dominated by conflict and mutual distrust. Whereas Turkey won its independence with the national struggle after World War II, Syria remained under the French Mandate for a long time. On the one hand, Syrians strove for independence, and on the other hand, they made a great effort for the territorial integrity. Turkey could not accept the British co-operation of the Arabs in World War II and Syria could also not accept that Hatay joined in Turkey in 1939. These events created the ground for insecurity in the relations between Turkey and Syria. The international developments in post-World War II brought Syria and Turkey confronted again. While Turkey established relationships with the Western world led by the United States and developed these, Syrian followed policies close to the Soviet Union. Whereas Turkey tried to form an alliance in the Middle East by leading to Baghdad Pact, Syria made effort to create an alternative alliance under the leadership of Egypt. Those relations with Turkey and Syria broke down so much that both countries came to the brink of war in 1957. That Turkey was left alone in the Cyprus issue by its Western allies in the international platform led Turkey to new searches in its foreign policy. As a result, in 1967 and 1973 Arab-Israeli wars, Turkey sided with the Arabs. Although this case developed Turkey - Syria Relations, it could not be made the long-term and lasting peace. Because, the policies of Hafez al-Assad Authority which gave priority to Arab nationalism in Syria hampered the hopes of peace in the relations between the two countries. In 1980s, the terrorist and water problem appeared between Turkey and Syria. The feud continued until 1998. A new page in the relations between the two countries opened as a result of fact that Syria gave up supporting terrorism and Bashar al-Assad supplanted the Syrian President Hafez Assad. Today, Turkey and Syria brought their friendship relations to an unprecedented level in history by the mutual gestures.

Keywords
Turkey, Syria, Middle East, International, Arab, U.S.A