Geri Anasayfa

Detay


The Effects of Reforms on Improving the Business and Investment Environment in the World on Economic Growth: Panel Cointegration Analysis According to Income Groups

Abstract
The fact that the economic structure is aimed at reducing the barriers to entrepreneurs enables the emergence of new initiatives that contribute to economic growth and the development of the private sector. For this reason, to promote economic growth, many countries focused on simplifying the enterprise process and have begun to implement reforms that reduce the time and costs caused by all officially formalized procedures to start a business. In this study, the relationship between the ease of starting a business and GNP per capita for the period 2007-2017 was analyzed by panel data analysis method for 170 countries. Countries are divided into four groups according to income groups (World Bank 2018 income thresholds) that 28 countries with low income levels, 43 countries with lower-middle income levels, 49 countries with upper-middle income levels and 50 groups with high income. Firstly, the stationary of variables that "proximity to best practice in starting to work" as independent variable (DTF) and GNP as dependent variable is investigated in the study. For this purpose, in panel data analysis, firstly, data for each income group whether includes unit root is tested with Im, Pesaran and Shin (2003), Levin et al. (2002) and Breitung (2000) unit root tests. Then Pedroni and Kao cointegration tests are applied to determine the long-term relationship between the variables. After these tests, DOLS (Dynamic Least Squares) and FMOLS (Fully Modified Least Squares) estimators, which is developed by Pedroni (2000,2001), is being used to estimate the coefficients of the long-term relationship between the cointegrated variables. In addition, the findings are interpreted by comparing for each income group.

Keywords
Doing business report, starting a business, GDP per capita, cointegration, FMOLS Fully Modified Ordi