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On Some Language Characteristics of Yûsuf u Zelîhâ in Nehcü’l-Ferâdis and Şeyyad Hamza's Yûsuf u Zelîha

Abstract
The first example of the story of Yusuf in Turkish literature whose source is the Torah and the Qur'an was introduced by Ali in the 13th century. From the 13th century to the 19th century, many Yusuf u Zelîhâ stories were written. Yûsuf u Zelîha mesnevi which Şeyyad Hamza, estimated to have lived at the end of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th century, wrote with Old Anatolian Turkish is one of the first works to reflect the Turkish language of the foundation age. It was written in Pure Oguz Turkish and contains some characteristic features and archaic elements. Oguz Turkish became a writing language in Anatolia independently from Karahanid Turkish. Kaşgarlı Mahmud Divânu gives information in Lügâti’t-Türk about the situation of Oguz Turkish in the 11th century when there were no written texts. Şeyhad Hamza's Yûsuf u Zelâha was written in pure Oguz Turkish without the influence of Eastern Turkish. Most researchers agree with this idea. There is a ten-page section of Yusuf Parable under the title of Declaration of The Evil of Adultery in the second chapter in the 42 th Hadei Hadith book, Nefcü Kl-Ferâdis, which was estimated to have been written before 1358 at Khwarezm area. The Khwarezm Turkish bearing the predominant traces of Eastern Turkish was also used by the Oguz tribes living in the Khwarezm region and was exposed to the effects of Oguz Turkish. The Yusuf parables, written in the Oguz and Khwarezm dialects, normally reflect the dialectic and linguistic features of the period in which they were written. However, it is known that these dialects affect each other, and some of the works of Khwarezm Turkish were written by Oguz authors. For this reason, comparison of sound-shape characteristics, vocabulary and obsolescence is important for revealing the relationship of these parables. In this study, both texts were compared, and sound-shape characteristics and vocabulary of Yusuf Parables written at a very close time and in a different dialect were evaluated in terms of veracity and obsolescence.

Keywords
Yûsuf Parable, Nehcü’l-Ferâdis, Şeyyad Hamza