Geri Anasayfa

Detay


PISHKASH TRADITION, PURPOSE AND FUNCTIONS IN OTTOMAN STATE IN THE XVII th CENTURY

Abstract
Pishkash word means “gift, present” in Persian. Receiving and giving gift is an important fact included in the customs of the Turkish-Islamic states, China and Byzantium cultures and Middle-East states before Ottoman. Gift that is received and given as an appearance of the traditional applications in the beginning in the Ottoman Empire became an importance factor of the ceremonies by being varied as a result of the developing social and economic conditions in the xvııth Century. From this point of view it came into prominence as an instrument applied by the political power and used as a power factor of the central authority. As a result of the socio-economic conditions, the presentation of pishkash gained importance in the daily life of sultans (visit, banquet, hunting, trip, etc.) as well as in the state jobs. In the research, the Ottoman archive documents have been detected after a literature scan, and other resources and data obtained from the other researches have been made use of through supplying, sorting and recording them. It has been found that during the Ottoman Empire times, presenting gifts was initially the appearance of the traditional applications before the Ottoman times while in the xvııth century it got varied and became an important part of the ceremonies with the developed social and economic conditions. During this period, presenting piskash (gift) was not only continued as a tradition but also became a prominence as a tool applied by the sultans due to its political, social, cultural, psychological and economic functions as it meant loyalty, compliance, friendship, peace and solidarity and considered as a power factor by the central authority.

Keywords
Ottoman, state, tradition, pishkash.