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«Sharh At-Ta‘Arruf» As An Independent Source On Tasawwuf And Also Other Islamic And Social Sciences

Abstract
The work of 'Sharh at-Ta'arruf li-madhhab at-tasawwuf’ written by Khoja Abu Ibrahim Isma‘il b. Mohammed b. Abdullah al-Mustamli al-Bukhari at the beginning of the XI century is an important source on tasawwuf and the history, theory, terminology of tasawwuf and the lives and activities of the sufis are covered widely. The main part of this work is devoted to the theory of tasawwuf, besides the four stages of tasawwuf (‘ilm [science], wajd, hal, maqam), five Sufi knowledges (knowledge of tawheed, knowledge of shari‘ah, knowledge of wisdom, knowledge of ma‘rifat, knowledge of isharat), eight conditions of tasawwuf (refraining from the world, breaking off with their home and their relatives, not hating people, being satisfied with what he earned, not looking for what he couldn’t find, living with tawakkul, dependentness, not grumbling over his fate to God) the full description of tasawwuf maqams and hals are characterized in details. The author of the work attempted to create a system differing from the numbers, types and sequence of maqams and hals stated in the works of the authors before him having his own approach to this issue. In particular, in 'Sharh at-Ta‘arruf' the following types, numbers and sequence of maqams and hals are defined: fourteen maqams (tawba, zuhd, faqr, taqwa, tawakkul, ridha, dhikr, uns, qurb, ittisal, tajrid, tafrid, fana, baqa); seventeen hals (sabr, tawazi‘, khawf, raja, ikhlas, shukr, yaqiyn, muhabbat, shawq, ghalabah, sukr, sahw, ghaybat, shuhud, jam‘, tafriqa, inbisat). ‘Sharh at-Ta‘arruf’ is also an important source of tasawwuf terminology. In the work a total of more than 150 tasawwuf terms are interpretated. In particular, as the author of the early Persian work on Tasawwuf Mustamli Bukhari used first the Persian sufi terms such as doost (God), dervish (sufi), pir (sheikh), shikaftiy (zahid, sufi), gurusna (zahid, sufi), barahna (blameless), sukhta (faniy), oshno (person from sufis), begona (person not from sufis), yodkard, (remembering god), yoddosht (always remembering god) together with Arabic sufi terms and gave their comments. Besides this, in his work Mustamli provided information about the science of tasawwuf terminology and tried to substantiate it theoretically. ‘Sharh at-Ta‘arruf’ is an important hagiographic source containing information in different levels about 135 sufis who lived in VIII–X centuries, including 14 sufis from Central Asia. In this work there is rare information about the sufi woman Amra from Fergana, about whom it isn’t written in other sources. All of these brings need of comprehensively and systematically studying ‘Sharh at-Ta’arruf’ as an encyclopedic work covering many aspects of tasawwuf before its own period, and determining the role and importance of the development of the teachings of tasawwuf in general, including the Central Asian tasawwuf and the science of tasawwuf, and its influence to the sources of tasawwuf after it.

Keywords
Sharh al-Ta‘arruf, al-Ta‘arruf, Mustamli, Kalabadi, sufism, kalam, philosophy, source, Sufi.